Physical inactivity

Increased levels of physical activity can assist in tackling many of the important health challenges faced by the UK. It can help in the prevention and treatment of over 20 chronic conditions, including coronary heart disease, stroke, type two diabetes, cancer, obesity, mental health problems and musculoskeletal conditions (Department of Health, 2004). An evidence review concluded that physical activity could be the best buy in public health (Morris, 1994).  Helping inactive people to move to a moderate activity level will produce the greatest reduction in risk of ill health (Department of Health, 2009).

Physical activity in childhood has a range of benefits including healthy growth and development, maintenance of energy balance, mental well-being, improved academic performance and social interaction, and reduces osteoporosis risk in later life (Department of Health, 2004).  Active children are less likely to smoke, or to use alcohol/get drunk or take illegal drugs (Physical Activity Task Force, 2002).  Active children are more likely to become active adults (Telema, 2009).

In the UK physical inactivity is responsible for 1 in 6 (17%) of deaths (Lee et al 2012), this makes it as dangerous as smoking (Wen, 2012). Physical inactivity in England is estimated to cost £7.4 billion a year (Everybody Active, Ever Day, 2014); The NHS cost alone is £900 million based on 2006/07 costs (Scarborough et al, 2011).   In Hartlepool the cost of inactivity is estimated as £22,791,547 and is ranked in the most inactive quartile 134/150 local authorities with the physically inactive population being 34.76% (Turning the Tide of Inactivity 2014).

This topic is most closely associated with the following JSNA topics:

Last updated: 2015-12-14 14:55:22
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1. What are the key issues?

Most people aren’t doing enough exercise. The Health Profile for Hartlepool (2014) shows that only 12.7% of adults in the town carry out 5x30 minutes moderate physical activity per week. This is below the North East average (14.4%) and national average (13.8%). In Hartlepool with a population of 92,000 this equates to 80,316 people not participating in the recommended physical activity to benefit health.

There are too many children who are overweight: 11.2% of children in reception year of primary school are very overweight; this rises to 24.4% in year 6.

Facilities are abundant but they are not appropriately placed within Hartlepool and they are in various states of disrepair and accessibility.

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

2. What commissioning priorities are recommended?

The following strategic priorities remain.  No additional priorities have been identified.

2012/01
Implement joint commissioning to support a move from a mainly project-based approach
to one which embeds healthy weight in all commissioning decisions. Update – Movement of the Sport and Recreation service into Public Health has been a positive move and links with the CCG and Health and Wellbeing Board are effective as has been an exercise in joint commissioning facilitated by an external agency in 2013. This work to embed cohesiveness and healthy weight into commissioning decisions continues.

2012/02
Provide early interventions from preconception up to age 2 years
to address the rising levels of child obesity. Update – Specific project work has been undertaken to address this area of concern however it is proving incredibly difficult to engage with pregnant women and also new mums who are particularly at risk or in low income families. This work is ongoing and remains a priority alongside family interventions to gain and maintain a healthy weight.

2013/03
Develop and agree healthy weight protocols for adults, children and families
which explain the role of all professional groups from early prevention to specialist treatment. This should include input from key partners including extended services, sport and recreation and play.  Update – the Hartlepool Healthy Weight Healthy Lives group is compiled of key organisations which input into prevention and intervention services. This group meets regularly and will continue to do so to enable the cross fertilisation of interventions and ideas and joined up working to a common goal of reducing the number of people who are of an unhealthy weight and need to change their behaviour.

2012/04
Implement family-based interventions
as these are the most successful approach to tackling obesity in children. Advice from the former National Support Team (NST) recommends that extended services are pivotal to engage with parents to tackle obesity. Update – as per earlier update there has been some work carried out setting up and building relationships with agencies/key staff who encounter overweight young people and their families and a pilot project set up to try and improve the situation in Hartlepool. This work is slow as it requires a much more time consuming personal approach to behaviour change however, results so far are positive and it continues to gather momentum.

2012/05
Develop strategies for both walking and cycling
which include a multi-agency approach.  Update – Walk About in Hartlepool has received national accreditation for the programme from Walking for Health (Ramblers and Macmillan Cancer Support). This programme continues to be popular and grow. Cycling is a developing sport within the town and links have been forged with the Sustainable Transport Team and now Summerhill has become a hub for Cycling and has its own Cycle Clinic. This area continues to remain a priority.

2012/06
Increase community access to existing school facilities
Update – this is still highlighted as a need in the town’s strategic documents and work has been completed in terms of the open spaces assessment which now includes school premises. This are will remain a difficult one but there is headway currently.

2012/07
Support the Community Activities Network to provide a base for commissioning opportunities in Hartlepool
and as a central point for discussion and planning.  Update – The Community Activities Network has morphed in recent years and now can come together for any key need but operates more as a funding body with its main aim to increase physical activity and fund new innovative projects to address this. This work will continue into 15/16 and is coordinated by Hartlepool Borough Council.

2012/08
Commission a single website that brings together the physical activity opportunities available in Hartlepool
instead of having multiple sources of information, although steps must be taken to avoid increasing health inequalities via the ‘digital divide’. Any such site should incorporate the current and emerging opportunities offered by social networking.  Update – The Council Website still faces criticism and this are still needs attention. There is a focus on the promotion of activities, incentives, use of social media by the Council for 15/16. There will also be an audit carried out via HBC in 2015 looking at increasing levels of physical activity.

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

3. Who is at risk and why?

Children and young people


Physical activity among children aged 2–15 varies according to a range of factors including gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (The Information Centre, 2008a; 2008b).

Gender
A higher percentage of boys than girls aged 2-15 years meet the Government’s recommendations for physical activity (32% and 24% respectively). Among girls the proportion meeting the recommendations generally decreases with age, ranging from 35% in girls aged 2 to 12% among those aged 14. There was a less consistent pattern with age among boys (The Information Centre, 2009).

By contrast, most children perceive themselves as being either very or fairly active compared with children their own age (The Information Centre, 2011). In addition, a substantial number of British adolescents believe themselves to be more physically active than they actually are (Corder et al, 2011).

Ethnicity
Children from minority ethnic groups tend to be less active compared to their white peers (The Information Centre, 2006).

Familial factors
There is a strong positive link between a child’s activity levels and that of their parents, particularly among girls (The Information Centre, 2008b). Furthermore, in terms of childhood obesity, this may be confined to those whose same-sex parents are also obese (Perez-Pastor et al, 2009).

Parents are an important influence on their child’s physical activity behaviour, yet most incorrectly consider their children to be sufficiently active (Corder et al, 2010).

Socioeconomic Status
Physical activity levels in children are related to household income, with those in the lowest income bracket more likely to be active: 36% compared to 25% in boys, and 30% and 22% among girls. This is perhaps surprising, since children in lower income groups are often found to have less healthy lifestyles (National Obesity Observatory, 2011; The Information Centre, 2009b).

Age
Children are becoming less physically fit as they age.  51% of boys and 34% of girls aged 4-10 years met the recommended levels in 2008, but only 7% of boys and no girls aged 11-15 years did so (National Obesity Observatory, 2011).

Disability
Children and young people with a disability take part in physical activity and sport less frequently and their experiences are less positive than their non-disabled peers (Sport Scotland, 2006).

Sedentary behaviour
On weekdays, 10% of children aged 2 to 9 years old were sedentary for six hours or more, but the proportion increased steeply in older children to over 60% of 15-year-olds. The proportion increased significantly across all age groups at weekends.

Household income was significantly associated with sedentary behaviour - for both boys and girls, as household income decreased, the average number of hours spent watching TV increased (The Information Centre, 2009b).

The main method of children aged 5-16 years getting to and from school is walking (41%), while 33% of this age group is being driven to school. Just 2% used a bike to travel to school as their main mode of transport (Department for Transport, 2011).

Adults


Evidence shows that certain population groups tend to have lower levels of physical activity including over 55-year-olds, some black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, disabled people, young women aged 14-24 years and lower socioeconomic groups (Sport England, 2011).

Gender and age
Based on the 2008 Health Survey for England, 39% of men and 29% of women met the Government’s recommendation for physical activity.  Women were significantly less physically fit than men, and fitness decreased significantly with age. The decline was steepest for men, although more males were physically fit in every age group (The Information Centre, 2009).

Ethnicity
Physical activity levels tend to be lower in ethnic minority groups (except Black Caribbean/African and Irish), especially South Asians (The Information Centre, 2006). Only 11% of Bangladeshi and 14% of Pakistani women were reported to have achieved the recommended amounts of physical activity, compared with 25% in the general population (Department of Health, 2009).

Socioeconomic status
There is an association between household income and physical activity; more people are active in households with higher income.  The degree of association is stronger in women than men (The Information Centre, 2009).

People with a limiting long-standing illness and/or a disability are at particular risk from inactivity (Department of Health, 2009).

Physical activity has an important role to play in promoting mental health and well-being by preventing mental health problems and improving the quality of life of those experiencing mental health problems and illnesses. Physical activity can reduce the risk of depression, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease with evidence showing a 20-30% lower risk for depression and dementia for adults participating in daily physical activity. Furthermore, physical activity can enhance psychological well-being, by improving self-perception and self-esteem, mood and sleep quality, and by reducing levels of anxiety and fatigue (Department of Health, 2011).

Sedentary behaviour
The amount of time people spend in sedentary behaviours including domestically (for example use of remote controls, computers and other energy saving devices), as part of transport (motorised transport instead of walking/cycling) and for adults at the workplace is becoming increasingly a concern.  Evidence that suggests sedentary behaviour is independently associated with all-cause mortality, type 2 diabetes, some types of cancer and metabolic dysfunction in adults and children (Department of Health, 2011).

The latest UK physical activity guidelines emphasise that sedentary behaviour should be minimised.  Findings from the 2008 Health Survey for England (The Information Centre, 2009) suggests that:

  • 32% of men and 33% of women were sedentary for six or more hours on weekdays, which increased to 44% and 39% respectively on weekends
  • Average total sedentary time varied by body mass index level – men/women who were a healthy weight were less sedentary than obese men/women
  • Sedentary behaviours in adults are affeccted by age, gender, socioeconomic conditions, occupation, weight status and some characteristics of the physical environment
  • Only 41% of adults made walks of 20 minutes or more at least 3 times a week and only 14% of adults rode a bicycle at least once a week (Department for Transport, 2011).

Patterns of how people travel, including walking and cycling, are contained within the JSNA transport topic.

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

4. What is the level of need in the population?

In Hartlepool 30.6% of adults are obese (PHE Health Profile 2014) this is an increase from 27.5% (Health Survey for England 2006 2008). The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data received from December 2014 shows:

  • 14.4% of reception children are overweight
  • 11.2% of reception children are very overweight
  • 14.3% of year 6 pupils are overweight
  • 24.4% of year 6 pupils are very over weight
  • 73.8% of children are at a healthy weight
  • There was a 96% participation rate.

These levels of obesity are significantly higher than the English average, illustrating the scale of the risk in Hartlepool.

Hartlepool faces a number of challenges related to health and wellbeing:

  • High levels of obesity both in children (especially year 6) and adults.
  • Health inequalities exist both within Hartlepool and between Hartlepool and England, including deprivation, child poverty, unemployment and life expectancy.
  • Hartlepool has low rates of participation in sport and active recreation (adult participation 3x30mins per week – formerly NI8) (21.9%) which is below the North East average (25.6%) and National average (24.7%) (Sport England Active People survey 7 – 2011-2013).
  • Participation in Sport (at least once a week) has increased since 2005 (30.4%) to 32.8% but remains below the north east and national averages; 34.7% and 35.7% respectively. (Sport England Local Sport Profile Hartlepool 2014)
  • It is estimated that a substantial proportion of cancers and over 30% of deaths from circulatory disease could be avoided, mainly through a combination of stopping smoking, improving diet and increasing physical activity (Department of Health, 2010)
  • Mortality rates are improving but the management of heart disease, cancer, and COPD remain significant challenges for Hartlepool.
  • High rates of smoking, obesity and alcohol underpin poor health outcomes.
  • Very low levels of breastfeeding (36% initiation, 20% continuation)
  • Time-limited funding for community-based projects affects sustainability.

Walking and cycling to school
In the 2011 annual school census, the proportion of Hartlepool pupils opting to walk or to cycle to school was above the national average in primary and secondary schools.  Fewer children use active travel for getting to secondary school compared to primary school.Travel to primary school, hartlepool, 2010 to 2011

Travel to school, Hartlepool, 2010 to 2011

 

Adult physical activity
The Health Profile for Hartlepool (PHE, 2014) shows that only 12.7% of adults in the town carry out 5x30 minutes moderate physical activity per week. This is below the North East average (14.4%) and national average (13.8%). In Hartlepool with a population of 92,000 this equates to 80,316 people not participating in the recommended physical activity to benefit health.

The table below shows the former NI8 indicator of 3x30mins per week of physical activity from 2005 to the most recent 2013 Active People 7 Survey results.

Adult participation in sport and active recreation, Hartlepool, 2005/06 to 2011/13

 

Hartlepool

North East

England

 

All

Male

Female

All

Male

Female

All

Male

Female

APS 1 (2005/06)

18.9

21.2

16.8

20.8

25.0

16.9

21.3

24.0

18.7

APS7

(2011-13)

 

21.9

 

24.5

 

19.5

 

25.6

 

31.3

 

20.1

 

24.7

 

28.3

 

21.3

Source: Sport England Active People Surveys

 

The number of adults doing zero sessions of 30 minutes moderate intensity activity is falling across the country and this is mirrored in Hartlepool.

Hartlepool results - other APS indicators
The Active People Survey (APS) measures other key performance indicators (KPI) including:
KPI 1  Taking part on at least 3 days a week in moderate intensity sport and active recreation (at least 12 days in the last 4 weeks), for at least 30 minutes continuously in any one session. Participation includes recreational walking and cycling.
KPI 2  Volunteering to support sport for at least one hour a week.
KPI 3  Being a member of a club particularly so that you can participate in sport or recreational activity in the last 4 weeks.
KPI 4  Having received tuition from an instructor or coach to improve your performance in any sport or recreational activity in the last 12 months.
KPI 5  Having taken part in any organised competition in any sport or recreational activity in the last 12 months.
KPI 6  Percentage of adults who are fairly or very satisfied with sports provision in their local area.
 

Indicator

Hartlepool

North East

England

05/06

10/11

12/13

05/06

10/11

12/13

05/06

10/11

12/13

KPI-2 - Volunteering at least one hour a week

4.3%

6.2%

3%

4.2%

6.3%

5.7%

4.7%

7.2%

6.0%

KPI-3 - Club membership in the last 4 weeks

19.6%

20.4%

16.8%

23.0%

21.2%

20.7%

25.1%

23.3%

21.0%

KPI-4 - Received tuition / coaching in last 12 months

13.4%

13.1%

15.2%

15.7%

14.0%

13.3%

18.0%

16.2%

15.8%

KPI-5 - Took part in organised competition in last 12 months

11.6%

15.7%

9.2%

13.0%

11.9%

12.3%

15.0%

14.3%

11.2%

KPI-6 - Satisfaction with local provision

73.5%

-

61.0%

70.4%

-

62.8%

69.5%

-

60.3%

 

KPI 4 has increased in Hartlepool while the trend for NE and National has been a decline in the number of people receiving coaching in the last 12 months. The reasons behind this anomaly are currently unexplained and this does not tally with Hartlepool’s very slow improvement in participation rates.

KPI6 shows that although a decline in satisfaction rates, the percentage value is still higher than the national average however the Sport and Recreation Survey 2014 commissioned by HBC shows that satisfaction rates are 71% (very satisfied) and 24% fairly satisfied leaving only 5% unhappy with the leisure offer in Hartlepool.

For all KPIs, Hartlepool recorded below average participation levels compared to England and the North East. Club membership (KPI-3) is the indicator furthest below England average, which is a particular concern as club membership tends to be a significant indicator of committed participation.

The Local Sport Profile Tool (Sport England, 2014) has been developed to help local authorities in England to generate a sporting profile for their area in the form of charts and tables, bringing together data on sporting participation and provision For the top five participation sports in Hartlepool, the profile shows more adults (than the England average) going to the gym and participating in fitness and conditioning activities.
Top five adult participation sports, Hartlepool, 2012/13


Social segments
The Mosaic social segmentation tool enables analysis of Hartlepool’s population to identify sub-groups that are the least active.  Mosaic groups E, J, K and O make up over 60% of Hartlepool’s population, with the largest group being O.  Groups J, K and O have higher than average rates of physical inactivity with 61% of group O; 58% of group K and 52% of group J participating in no physical activity in the last month.

Prevalence of inactivity, Mosaic population groups, HartlepoolMosaic groups and no exercise, Hartlepool

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

5. What services are currently provided?

Hartlepool has a mixture of public, private and voluntary organisations that provide sport and physical activity, including:

Sport and Active leisure

  • Three public Leisure Centres – Mill House (central), The Headland (North) and Brierton (South). All Council operated.
  • Private gyms and fitness facilities
  • Annual events including the Hartlepool Big Lime Triathlon
  • Bikebaility and Balance Bikes in schools alongside curriculum PE and school club links
  • Weekly Parkrun along the coast – 5km
  • School holiday activities organised by many diffiernt providers including clubs, council, voluntarty organisations, charities
  • Exercise on Referral Programme – Hartlepool Exercise for Life (HELP) ran by the Council Sport and Recreation Service
  • Country Park – Summerhill, ran by Hartlepool Borough Council which has open access and includes boulders, national standard BMX track and high ropes course.
  • Carlton Outdoor Centre – managed by HBC but located in Carlton in Cleveland.
  • Pre and Post natal activities at various locations
  • 6th form and Further Education provision and sports opportunities
  • Walking and Ramblers groups

Infrastructure

  • Recreation grounds.
  • Skate parks.
  • Private gyms and health clubs.
  • School- and college-based facilities open for community use.
  • Youth and community centres providing various activities including skate park provision, council managed and also voluntary sector managed.
  • Allotments: There are 19 allotment sites in Hartlepool giving access to 1067 plots. For the North East region this is a high level of plots and there is still a waiting list for circs 300 plots in Hartlepool.Parks and local Nature Reserves
  • Cycle ways and Walkways
  • Play Equipment

Provision of services

  • Community groups/organisations/charitable trusts - over 70 registered sports clubs some of which own their premises.
  • Council Sport and Recreation Service which includes managed facilities, outdoor activities centre, site and service, Exercise on Referral Learn to Swim, Summerhill Country Park and Outdoor Activity Centre, Sport and Physical Activity Development, and Recreation Development.
  • Green spaces including bowling greens, golf courses, parks.
  • Externally funded projects and programmes.
  • Outdoor activity providers both voluntary and public services.


Hartlepool has provision for the following sports and leisure activities:

Swimming – Hartlepool has a lot of water space and the swimming pool at Mill House Leisure Centre has public swimming times throughout the week and includes classes as well as public swimming. Concessionary rates are available as well as member discounts linked to the Active Card scheme which operates in Council leisure facilities.

Football – Hartlepool has 18 recreation grounds where football can be played as well as sports halls for indoor football.

Gym/keep fit – There are many organisations, public and private, which have a gym/fitness suite available to the community including school-based facilities where access may be limited. Hartlepool Council manages three fitness suites within Mill House Leisure Centre, Brierton Sports Centre and the Headland Sports Hall. Hartlepool College of Further Education has opened a new fitness suite primarily for their students. Aerobic-type sessions are available at a range of venues.

Cycling – there are cycle paths in Hartlepool and the sustainable travel team are working on extending these. Hartlepool Council Sport and Recreation team have also made cycling and cycle maintenance a development project for both men and women. Hartlepool Borough Council (HBC) currently operates a cycle-to-work scheme for its employees. HBC provide a free combined rights of way and cycle network map/information booklet. All schools in Hartlepool have produced a travel plan. Walking to school is significantly above the national average and car trips have been declining steadily over the last four years. Cycling is a focus sport for the Sport and Recreation Team at all levels including balance bikes for toddlers to BMX competitions at Summerhill which has a nationally recognised track and start system.

Bowling – bowls is popular in the town with both an indoor club/facility as well as greens within the towns green spaces. The indoor bowling centre is in the centre of town with easy access by public transport.

Examples of current programmes (with initiation date) include:

  • Hartlepool Learn to Swim Programme for adults and children.
  • Bikeability (formerly cycle proficiency).
  • Play Bus operated by Hartlepool Families First alongside other physical activity provision targeting children with additional needs (1990).
  • Hartlepool Exercise for Life Programme (H.E.L.P) (1999) – Exercise on Referral programme including phase 4 cardiac rehabilitation, Type 2 Diabetes prevention and interventions, and pre/post natal activities.
  • Walk About in Hartlepool – free walks programme run by HBC and group of volunteer walk leaders. The scheme has received accreditation from Walking for Health which is run by the Ramblers and Macmillan Cancer Support UK. Nordic walks also fall into this programme which is a course and fees apply.
  • Together Project (2009) – working with those individuals recovering from cancer/other limiting illness.
  • A wide range of projects funded via the Community Activities Network with the aim to increase participation in Hartlepool (between 2009 and 2015).
  • Sport England Community Sports Activation Funding to support increase in participation in key areas within the town using volunteer activators and working with identified sports including Cycling, Running, Swimming, Triathlon, Sailing, Dance and Multi-Sports. This is a three year project commencing January 2015.
  • Carlton Outdoor Centre now falls within the remit of the Sport and Recreation Service within the Council. The site provides for all abilities and groups to spend tailored durations on site and in the local area of Carlton in Cleveland experiencing the world of outdoor adventure.

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

6. What is the projected level of need?

Despite Hartlepool’s participation figures being broadly in line with the North East and England, this still means that about 80% of the population is not doing 3 x 30 minutes activity per week.  Projecting the ‘Active people’s Survey data to 2020 shows no change in the proportion of physically active people in Hartlepool.

 

Last updated: 12/04/13

7. What needs might be unmet?

A significant proportion of facilities are education owned and this has implications in terms of accessibility. The Open Spaces Assessment 2014 along with the Indoor Facilities Strategy 2013 show where there is still scope for community use of education facilities by the public/groups.

There is only one public access swimming pool which accounts for 50% of the total water area in Hartlepool.  All other pools are on school sites and in various states of repair. There is a highlighted need in the literature re Indoor Facilities that another 25m pool is required in the south of Hartlepool and this remains an aspiration.

Only one secondary school has been granted Building Schools for the Future (BSF) funding.  This loss of BSF for all other secondary schools limits their community sporting provision.

There is a demand for sports halls for physical activity but there is limited access on some sites during the day as they are school sites.

There are high numbers of facilities within Hartlepool but they are not all in the best locations.  Some have poor levels of maintenance and are in need of refurbishment.

There is a range of activities offered by the council which are reasonably accessible by vulnerable and older people, but some members of the community are not aware of the opportunities. Greater use of social media and to have a more up to date website is paramount for the development of services. The introduction of on-line bookings for leisure sites also remains a priority.

It remains a priority to reduce the number of adults and children who are an unhealthy weight. This is a long term aim as a cultural shift and change will be required to achieve this. Small in-roads are being made but this requires more time, research, and funding (as identified in the Hartlepool Health and Well being Strategy 2013-2018).

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

8. What evidence is there for effective intervention?

Evidence from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)
NICE has completed a number of evidence reviews around the effectiveness of various physical activity or associated lifestyle interventions. These include:

Four commonly used methods to increase physical activity PH2 (NICE, 2006)
Physical activity and the environment PH8 (NICE, 2008a)
Promoting physical activity in the workplace PH13 (NICE, 2008b)
Promoting physical activity for children and young people PH17 (NICE, 2009a
Behaviour change at population, community and individual levels  PH6 (NICE, 2007)
Cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease CG67  (NICE, 2008c)
Prevention of cardiovascular disease at population level  PH25 (NICE, 2010)

 

Reviews and meta-analyses of physical activity interventions

Public Health England (2014). Everybody Active, Every Day: An evidence-based approach to physical activity.  Actions include participating in more physical activity reaps greater benefits to individuals and consequently communities and local services. There is a three year difference in the life expectancy between minimally active and inactive people.

 

Interventions by age or population sub-group
Interventions delivered through the school setting are the most consistent, promising strategy whilst the effect of community or family based programmes remains unclear.  (Salmon, Booth, Phongsavan et al, 2007; Kriemler, Meyer, Martin et al, 2011; van Sluijs, Kriemler, & McMinn, 2011)

There is sufficient evidence to support the implementation of interventions designed to increase physical activity amongst adults and their cost effectiveness. (Foster, Hillsdon& Thorogood, 2005; Müller-Riemenschneider, Reinhold, Nocon & Willich, 2008 and 2009; Jepson, Harris, Platt & Tannahill, 2010)

Physical activity interventions can be effective with obese individuals. (Gourlan, Trouilloud. & Sarrazin, 2011)

 

Interventions by type
Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure has the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts. (Yang, Sahlqvist, McMinn et al, 2010; Vuori, 2011)

Interventions to promote walking among targeted participants are effective along with interventions using a pedometer which have been shown to be effective both with young people and adults although the long-term sustainability of such impacts is unproven. (Ogilvie, Foster,  Rothnie et al, 2007; Lubans, Morgan & Tudor-Locke, 2009; Bravata, Smith-Spangler, Sundaram et al, 2007)

Improving the marking and physical environment of school playgrounds can increase the physical activity of school children. (Verstraete, Cardon, De Clercq & Bourdeaudhuij, 2006; Ridgers, Fairclough & Stratton, 2010)

The effectiveness of exercise referral schemes (ERS) has yet to be proven; a recent review shows very limited evidence as to the effectiveness of ERS for increasing activity, fitness or health indicators or whether they are an efficient use of resources in sedentary people without a medical diagnosis. A further analysis found that the cost effectiveness of ERS improves when ERS are targeted at individuals with existing conditions while an evaluation of the ERS on Teesside made a number of recommendations to improve the local programmes.  (Pavey, Taylor, Fox et al, 2011; Anoyke, Trueman, Green et al, 2011; Carlebach, Athey & Shucksmith, 2011)

Mass media campaigns targeting physical activity can have the effect of increasing awareness but evidence beyond this (including changing behaviour) remains unclear.  (Leavy, Bull, Rosenberg & Bauman, 2011)

Interventions targeting reduction in sedentary behaviour in children can have a small but positive impact; however, further research is needed to ascertain whether interventions targeted at adults are effective. (Biddle, O’Connell. & Braithwaite, 2011; Owen, Sugiyama, Eakin, et al, 2011)

One promising method of intervention is active video games, which “are capable of generating energy expenditure in youth to attain physical activity guidelines” (Barnett, Cerin & Baranowski, 2011, p. 724) although evidence is required on how to sustain the effect in the medium- and long-term.
 

Last updated: 14/12/15

9. What do people say?

Hartlepool Sport and Recreation Survey 2014

  • Satisfaction with the HBC leisure venues at fairly or very satisfied 95% of respondents.
  • 64% state they complete 5x30 mins per week of physical activity.

Hartlepool Sport and Physical Activity Consultation 2013

  • 25.5% take part in 3 x 30 mins sport and physical activity per week.
  • 57.7% take part in fitness/gym based exercise/classes and the second most popular activity is running 25.6%
  • The majority of respondents used a leisure centre to participate 39.7% followed by community centres 33.8%
  • Multi sport and Swimming were cited as the most popular sports to try
  • 40% of respondents would like to see more activities they can access as a family.

Viewpoint (April 2011)

  • 1,000 people surveyed regarding London 2012 Olympic Games.
  • When asked ‘Do you think the Olympics will help you adopt a healthier lifestyle?’ 21% said yes, 79% said no.
  • 32% of people said they would be interested in attending a ‘one year to go’ celebratory event
  • 35% interested in water-based activity at the marina
  • 29% interested in Olympic-themed Holiday Programmes
  • 26% interested in Olympic activities held within Leisure Facilities including the Borough Hall
  • 19% interested in INSPIRE arts exhibition.

Hartlepool Borough Council – Employee Health and Wellbeing Survey (October 2011)

  • 23% took part in 5 x 30 minutes moderate intensity exercise per week.
  • 29% took part in 3 x 30 minutes moderate intensity exercise per week.
  • 41% felt that they could access activities provided by their employer.

Hartlepool Borough Council Leisure Centre User Survey, including Mill House Leisure Centre and Headland Sports Hall (November 2011)

  • 15% participated in 5 x 30 minutes and 16% in 3 x 30 minutes of intensive sport and physical activity per week.
  • 50% participated in 5 x 30 minutes and 9% in 3 x 30 minutes of physical exercise per week
  • 88% were very satisfied or satisfied with the provision
  • 79% felt that they received value for money
  • 71% would not change opening times
  • 98% respondents were white.

Have your say on Council spending

Total public consultation results from 1,763 responses received (Summer 2010) found:

  • 58% said that it was unacceptable to reduce parks, playgrounds and countryside.
  • 61% said it was unacceptable to cut sport and physical recreation.

Hartlepool Exercise for Life – Exercise on Referral (2014)
73% of those participants who completed a 10-week course of exercise on referral continue to be physically active 6 months after completion of their original course.

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention 2013-14

  • Currently within the HELP scheme we have two additional strands of delivery, targeting Type 2 Diabetes.
  • In the time period April to December 2014 there have been 65 patients referred to these programmes.
  • These Lifestyle Intervention projects are for those either identified as Pre Diabetic or those who have known poor management of their condition. The service offers both supervised exercise and healthy eating workshops educating clients on healthier meal choices to better balance blood glucose. These two components working in parallel have achieved positive results to date resulting in patients achieving weight loss, reduced cholesterol, lower blood glucose and blood pressure readings.
  • In partnership with the GP surgeries we are able to obtain the clinical results from repeat HbA1c blood tests when patients attend their review meetings. This data provides us with outcome measures that indicate the effectiveness of the intervention. The E.D.A.N (Escape Diabetes Act Now) project is the preventative model and we offer a similar structure to the Type 2 Diabetes programme above, however the outcome of reversing the risk level of developing diabetes in the first place has a huge impact on reducing the other many health problems associated with Type 2 Diabetes.

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

10. What additional needs assessment is required?

None at this time, focus needs to be utilising the information gathered to implement a step change in behaviour towards a healthy active lifestyle.

 

 

Last updated: 14/12/15

Key Contact

Name: Zoe Rickelton
Job Title: Sport and Physical Activity Manager
e-mail: zoe.rickelton@hartlepool.gov.uk
phone: (01429) 523411

References

Local strategies and plans

Tees Valley Sport Sub-regional Facilities Strategy (2009)

NHS North East (2008) Better Health, Fairer Health

Neat Moves, Health and Transport Together Report (2011) – NEAT moves outputs and next steps for North East Active Travel.

NHS Tees (2010) Weight Management Services Strategic Review and Development Plan

Hartlepool Health and Wellbeing Strategy 2013-2018

Hartlepool Sport and Physical Activity Strategy 2011

Hartlepool Playing Pitch Strategy 2012

Hartlepool Indoor Leisure Facility Strategy 2013

Hartlepool Open Space Assessment 2015

 

National strategies and plans

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2008). Before, During and After: Making the Most of the London 2012 Games

Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2008b). Playing to win: A new era for sport

Department for Transport (2010). Active Travel Strategy 

Department of Health (2004). At Least Five a Week – Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity and its Relationship to Health – A Report from the Chief Medical Officer.

Department of Health (2004b). Choosing Health: Making Health Choices Easier

Department of Health (2005). Choosing activity: a physical activity action plan

Department of Health (2009). Be Active, Be Healthy: A Plan for Getting the Nation Moving

Department of Health (2009b). Let’s Get Moving - A new physical activity care pathway for the NHS: Commissioning guidance

Department of Health (2010). Healthy Lives, Healthy People

Department of Health (2011). Start Active, Stay Active: A Report on Physical Activity from the Four Home Countries’ Chief Medical Officers.

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). Behaviour Change at Population, Community and Individual Levels (PH6)

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). Four Commonly Used Methods to Increase Physical Activity: Brief Interventions in Primary Care, Exercise Referral Schemes, Pedometers and Community-Based Exercise Programmes for Walking and Cycling (PH2)

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2008a). Promoting and Creating Built or Natural Environments that Encourage and Support Physical Activity (PH8)

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2008b). Promoting Physical Activity in the Workplace (PH13)

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2008c). Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and the Modification of Blood Lipids for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (CG67)

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2009a). Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Young People (PH17).

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2009b). Promoting Mental Wellbeing through Productive and Healthy Working Conditions: Guidance for Employers (PH22).

National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2010). Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease at Population Level (PH25)

National Obesity Observatory (2011) Determinants of Obesity: Child Physical Activity http://www.noo.org.uk/NOO_pub/Key_data

Sport England (2008). Creating a sporting habit for life; Sport England strategy 2012-17

 

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