The prevalence of obesity in England is increasing at all ages; almost two-thirds of adults and one-third of children are either overweight or obese.  If present trends continue, 60% of men, 50% of women and 25% of children will be obese by 2050.

Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for disease and mortality including cardiovascular disease, cancer and disability during older age.   It contributes to a decrease in life expectancy.  Furthermore, obesity is associated with serious chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (Health Survey for England, 2009).   Risk factors for some of these conditions start at a relatively low body mass index (BMI), and this will cause future health service costs to rise significantly.  In Redcar & Cleveland alone, NHS costs of principal diseases related to obesity are estimated to be £42.5 million (Department of Health, 2010).

The rising trend in obesity is one of the biggest threats to the health of the population of Redcar & Cleveland. The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher than the national average for both adults and children.  The trend of weight problems in children and young people is of particular concern because of evidence suggesting a ‘conveyor belt’ effect in which excess weight in childhood continues into adulthood (Department of Health, 2008). In addition to the increased health risks in later life, children and young people face immediate health and psychological consequences of obesity including increased risks for elevated blood pressure and type 2 diabetes, low self-esteem, anxiety and depression.

The causes of obesity are complex and relate to a wide variety of societal and behavioural factors which cannot be tackled in isolation. Social determinants have an important impact on the likelihood of becoming obese and they need to be addressed.

The inequalities, health risks and costs associated with obesity combine to make the prevention of obesity a major public health challenge.

This topic is linked with the following JSNA topics:


Last updated: 2015-07-10 16:26:27
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1. What are the key issues?

Overweight and obesity is influenced by a complex, multi-faceted system of determinants including environmental, physiological and behavioural factors (see Foresight obesity system map).  Tackling obesity therefore requires a multi-agency, multi-faceted approach.

Obesity is one of the most common causes of preventable death in England and is associated with a plethora of increased health risks including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, hypertension, stroke and increased risks during and after pregnancy. Risk factors for some of these diseases, notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, start to increase at a relatively low BMI, particularly for some ethnic groups.

If a child or young person is obese there is a high likelihood they will become an obese adult. In addition to the increased risk for health problems in later life, children face immediate health and psychological consequences of obesity including increased risks for elevated blood pressure and type 2 diabetes, low self-esteem, anxiety and depression.

Both the child and adult rates of obesity in Redcar & Cleveland continue to be significantly higher than the national average. Moreover, the prevalence of child obesity doubles between ages 5 and 11 years, clearly demonstrating the need for interventions at an early age.

The increasing prevalence rates of overweight and obesity subsequently impacts on demand for services and cost to the NHS and wider economy.  The current total annual cost to the NHS of overweight and obesity in terms of treatment and its consequences has been estimated at £5.1 billion based on 2006/07 figures (Scarborough et al, 2011) with additional costs for the wider economy – for example, based on a study of London tube workers, obese individuals take an extra four days sick leave per year (Harvey et al, 2010). Within Redcar & Cleveland, the annual cost to the NHS in 2010 was £42.5 million, predicting to rise to £45.5 million by 2015 (Department of Health, 2008).

National data suggests that individuals of Asian origin, people with learning and physical disabilities and pregnant women have the greatest health risks due to obesity demonstrating a need to develop and provide targeted weight management services for these population sub-groups.

Nationally, the proportion of pregnant women who are obese has doubled over the last 19 years.  The incidence of maternal obesity is higher in Redcar & Cleveland than the national average. Maternal obesity significantly increases the morbidity and mortality risks to the mother and infant, and is a significant burden on NHS resources.

There are significant gaps in Tier 2 and Tier 3 services for all sub-groups of the population.


Last updated: 10/07/15

2. What commissioning priorities are recommended?

Establish a Redcar & Cleveland Healthy Weight, Health Lives Partnership
to ensure a co-ordinated approach to prevent and manage obesity. Achieved June 2014.

Adopt a life course approach
to ensure health inequalities are addressed at all ages. Remains a priority.

Review care pathways and the obesity service model
in line with the evidence base that suggests that different BMI cut-off points for different ethnic groups should be considered as points for public health action, particularly for people of South Asian origin – and commission services appropriately. Amended in 2015, remains a priority.

Balance the investment between prevention and treatment services
ensuring targeted support for those identified most at risk of overweight and obesity. Remains a priority.

Ensure that the potential for physical activity and healthy eating is maximised
through joint working with planning and transport departments including the use of health impact assessments to address the obesogenic environment. Abandoned, replaced by 2015/04 and 2015/05.

Increase capacity across the different sectors
to ensure every contact becomes a health improvement opportunity and to ensure increased capacity and capability in the workforce to support children, young people and adults to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Abandoned, replaced by new priorities.

The following commissioning priorities are new for 2015:

Commission weight management treatment services in line with population need

Commission a range of interventions aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain

Commission pilot approaches to preventing/treating obesity in the under-fives
based on the best available science that will ultimately add to the evidence base.

Work with colleagues across other commissioning functions (e.g. transport) to maximise opportunities for obesity prevention and treatment.

Other key priorities that are not necessarily related to commissioning include:

Adopt a whole Council / whole system approach to obesity prevention and treatment
in line with the Foresight obesity system map and future PHE commissioned whole systems obesity work.


Last updated: 10/07/15

3. Who is at risk and why?

The prevalence of overweight and obesity rises with age, in both men and women, from a relatively low level in the 16-24 age group to a peak at 65-74 (although obesity peaks slightly earlier in men).  Older adults (aged 75+) have a lower prevalence of obesity (National Obesity Observatory, 2010).

In children, the prevalence of obesity also increases with age. The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) shows obesity prevalence is significantly higher in Year 6 than in Reception classes.  The Health Survey for England 2012 (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2014) shows that those aged 11-15 were more likely to be obese than those aged 2-10 years (19.1%/18.7% and 10.8%/10.3% for boys/girls respectively).

There is no current evidence suggesting gender plays a significant role in determining the prevalence of obesity in adults.  However, the NCMP shows that boys are significantly more likely to be obese than girls.

Obesity prevalence varies substantially between ethnic groups for both adults and children (National Obesity Observatory, 2011a).  However, estimates of adult obesity prevalence by ethnic group seem to differ according to the measurement used (for example, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference).

For men, when using BMI, findings suggest that compared to the general population, obesity prevalence is lower in Bangladeshi and Chinese communities.  However, if using a different measurement such as raised waist-to-hip ratio, obesity prevalence is higher in Bangladeshi men.

For women, when using BMI, obesity prevalence appears to be higher in Black African, Black Caribbean and Pakistani women and lower in women from Chinese communities. When using raised waist-to-hip ratio, obesity prevalence is higher in Bangladeshi women.

Children from most minority ethnic groups have a higher prevalence of obesity than White British children, although the patterns are different for boys and girls and for different age groups. Among Reception age children, Black African boys and girls have the highest prevalence of obesity. In Year 6, Bangladeshi boys have the highest prevalence, whereas among girls, those from African and Other Black groups have the highest prevalence (National Obesity Observatory, 2011a).

There is continuing debate about the applicability of definitions of obesity between ethnic groups for adults and children. Since different ethnic groups have different physiological responses to fat storage, revised BMI thresholds and waist circumference measures have been recommended, particularly for South Asian populations who are at risk of chronic diseases and mortality at lower levels than European populations (National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, 2012).

Socioeconomic status
The distribution of overweight and obesity has a significant social gradient, with prevalence among people who are socially and economically deprived.  Adults and children in social class V (unskilled manual) have a higher prevalence of obesity than those in social class I (professional). The gap between the two is significant, and has widened since 1997 in both sexes (National Obesity Observatory, 2011b).

Familial factors
There is evidence that childhood obesity is higher in households where parents are classed as overweight or obese. The prevalence of obese children in households with overweight/obese adults was 24% for boys and 21% for girls. By comparison, rates of obesity for children in normal/underweight households were 11% for boys and 10% for girls (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2012).

Maternal obesity
The proportion of pregnant women who are obese has doubled from 7.6% in 1989 to 15.6% in 2007 (Heselhurst et al, 2010). Maternal obesity presents a series of significant health risks to both mother and child during pregnancy and childbirth.  It is associated with an increased risk of serious adverse outcomes including miscarriage, foetal congenital abnormality, thromboembolism, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, post-partum haemorrhage, stillbirth and neonatal death. There is also a higher caesarean section rate and lower breastfeeding rate in this group of women compared with women with a healthy BMI (Department of Health, 2008).

There is a significant relationship between maternal obesity and deprivation. Women who are obese are significantly more likely to be older in pregnancy and to live in areas of high deprivation, compared with women who are not obese (Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries [CMACE], 2010).

There are also significant links with ethnicity.  The CMACE (2010) report found that women with BMI ≥35 from BME groups were three-and-a-half times more likely to have type 2 diabetes and 1.6 times more likely to have gestational diabetes than white women with BMI ≥35.

North East England research shows that 65% of overweight and obese pregnant women are physically active at 13 weeks gestation, although this decreases as the pregnancy progresses (McParlin et al, 2010).

There are associations between limiting longstanding illness and BMI. Combined data from the Health Surveys for England 2006-10 showed that 35.8% of adults with a limiting long-term illness or disability (LLTI) in England were obese compared to 22.9% without a LLTI (National Obesity Observatory, 2013a).

Obesity disproportionately affects people with a learning disability.  A report by the Sainsbury’s Centre for Mental Health (Samele et al. 2006) found that the rate of obesity among people with a learning disability was significantly different to those without such a disability (28.3% compared to 20.4%).

Children who have a limiting illness are more likely to be obese or overweight, particularly if they also have a learning disability. Combined data from the Health Surveys for England 2006-10 showed that children aged 2–15 years with a LLTI in England were approximately 35% more likely to be obese compared to those without a LLTI (National Obesity Observatory, 2014).

Mental health
The relationship between obesity and common mental health disorders is complex. Evidence suggests there are links between obesity and depression, although it is not clear which ways the influence flows.  A recent systematic review found that “obese persons had a 55% increased risk of developing depression over time, whereas depressed persons had a 58% increased risk of becoming obese”(Luppino et al. 2010).

Risks associated with obesity
Compared with a man of healthy weight, an obese man is:

  • five times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes;
  • three times more likely to develop cancer of the colon;and
  • over two-and-a-half times more likely to develop high blood pressure, a major risk factor for stroke and heart disease.

Compared with a woman of healthy weight, an obese woman is:

  • almost thirteen times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes;
  • four times more likely to develop high blood pressure; and
  • three or more times more likely to have a heart attack.

Increased risk for other diseases includes angina, gallbladder disease, liver disease, ovarian cancer, osteoarthritis and stroke. Risk factors for some of these diseases, notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, start to increase at relatively low BMIs, particularly for those people from some ethnic groups, including South Asian people (Government Office for Science, 2007).

In addition to the increased risk for health problems in later life, obese children face immediate health and psychological consequences such as blood pressure, elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, low self-esteem and higher rates of anxiety and depression (Lobstein, 2011).


Last updated: 10/07/15

4. What is the level of need in the population?

Adult obesity
As part of the Active People Survey 2013, weight status in the adult population of Redcar & Cleveland was measured for the first time. This shows that 27.5% of the adult population is obese with a further 43.4% overweight (70.9% overweight or obese). This figure is statistically significantly worse than the national average and also 4th worst in a group of 33 similarly deprived areas.

Adult excess weight benchmarks, Redcar & Cleveland, 2012

Learning disability
It has been suggested that approximately 49% of adults with a learning disability are overweight or obese (Bhaumik et al, 2008), whilst only 15% meet the Government physical activity recommendations (Finlayson, Turner and Granat, 2011). Applying these figures to the estimated population of adults in Redcar & Cleveland with a learning disability (approximately 2,550) would suggest that around 1,250 are obese and 2,200 are physically inactive.

Maternal obesity
In England, first trimester obesity (BMI>30kg/m2) has more than doubled from 7.6% to 15.6%, in 19 years, leading to an additional 47,500 women in England requiring high dependency care every year (Heslehurst et al. 2010). Data from James Cook University Hospital (JCUH) shows that the incidence of maternal obesity is higher than the national average and has been increasing in recent years.

Analysis of three years of data (April 2010 – March 2013) found that, in the South Tees area, 48.9% of mothers had a BMI above 25 at booking and 21.6% had a BMI above 30. This rate varies between the different wards as shown below.

Analysing the data at lower super output area (LSOA) level highlights the difference in obesity in finer detail than wards.  Is shows six small areas with high rates of maternal obesity in Redcar & Cleveland.

.Maternal obesity at booking, South Tees LSOAs, 2010-2013

Maternal obesity is nearly twice as high in the most deprived quintile of LSOAs compared with the least deprived.  In the South Tees area, nearly six in ten bookings (59%) are for mothers who live in the most deprived areas. In the three years, there were 357 women with a recorded BMI>40 at booking, about 120 per year or one every third day.

Maternal obesity by deprivation quintile, South Tees, 2010-2013

Maternal obesity rates at booking increase with the age of the mother.  About one in eight teenage mothers is obese, half of the rate seen in mothers aged over 35.

Maternal obesity by age, South Tees, 2010-2013


Child obesity
Child obesity is higher in children aged 10-11 years compared with those aged 4-5 years.  Redcar & Cleveland has an increasing trend in child obesity at age 10-11 years.  Compared with England, the latest obesity rates are not significantly different.Child obesity trend, Redcar & Cleveland, 2006/07 to 2013/14

Child obesity age 10-11, Redcar & Cleveland plus benchmarks, 2013/14

Obesity in 5-year-olds benchmark, Redcar & Cleveland, 2013/14

It has been suggested that due to poor participation rates in the earlier cohorts that the Year Six obesity prevalence were underestimated by around 1.3 percentage points for 2006/07, around 0.8 percentage points for 2007/08, and around 0.7 percentage points for 2008/09 due to obese children being more likely to opt out of being measured than other children.  The impact on prevalence for Reception children was small or zero (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2011).

Obesity and deprivation
The following two maps show rates of obesity in each ward in Redcar & Cleveland. These can be compared with maps showing deprivation scores.  Generally, obesity prevalence tends to be higher in the more deprived wards in Redcar & Cleveland.Obesity at age 5, Redcar & Cleveland wards, 2010/11 to 2012/13

Obesity at age 11, Redcar & Cleveland wards, 2010/11 to 2012/13

Evidence shows that the prevalence of child obesity is closely related to deprivation; the National Obesity Observatory (2013b) found that the prevalence of obesity of children living in the 10% poorest areas is nearly twice that of those living in the most affluent areas with a linear relationship in-between. The graphs below show the association between obesity and deprivation in Tees wards for children aged 5 and 11 years.  The strength of the relationship between obesity and deprivation appears stronger at age 11 than age 5.Obesity and deprivation, 5-year-olds, Tees wards, 2010/11 to 2012/13

Obesity and deprivation, 11-year-olds, Tees wards, 2010/11 to 2012/13


Last updated: 10/07/15

5. What services are currenty provided?

In Redcar & Cleveland, a four tiered model has been developed:

  • Tier 1 – population wide basic intervention and prevention for adults with a BMI ≤ 25
  • Tier 2 – community weight management service for adults with a BMII ≥ 25 with no known significant co-morbidities
  • Tier 3 – specialist weight management service for adults with BMI ≥ 40 or ≥ 35 with significant co-morbidities
  • Tier 4 – Access to bariatric surgery

Tier 1 - prevention
Listed below are some of the key interventions which contribute to the prevention of overweight and obesity. These are discussed in more detail in the Diet and nutrition and Physical inactivity topics.

  • Healthy workplace interventions including the North East Better Health at Work Award – this includes actions to support employees to become more active and improve healthy eating.
  • Change4Life – the Change4Life brand and messages have been incorporated into local programmes and services such as sport and leisure services, cooking programmes, walking and cycling programmes and allotment programmes. Since January 2009, there have been over 5,000 people who have signed up to Change4Life from Redcar & Cleveland.
  • Active travel – promoting uptake of walking and cycling (see the Transport topic for more information).

Tier 2 – targeted interventions

  • Community weight management services – on the 31st March 2015, the main tier two weight management was decommissioned. During 2015/16 a review of tier two weight management services is being conducted alongside other interventions, with a view to commissioning a new service from the 1st April 2016 that will better fit population needs. During this period, other services are available (e.g. exercise on referral, commercial services, internet based interventions) although some of these incur a charge on the individual.
  • Forensic service – weight management programmes are delivered to people with mental illness or learning disabilities who are detained on the forensic units.  These groups are delivered by specialist dieticians and technical instructors.

Tier 3 – specialist interventions

  • Specialist weight management service – commissioned by South Tees Clinical Commissioning Group, this provides a specialist weight management service delivered by a multi-disciplinary team for people with a BMI≥40 or ≥35 with significant co-morbidities.  The service is patient-centred and offers a variety of treatment options including psychological support, dietetic support and physical activity support.
  • Maternal obesity healthy lifestyle clinic – aims to provide support for lifestyle changes related to healthy eating and physical activity during pregnancy.  The clinic is targeted at obese pregnant women who have a BMI≥40 with no co-morbidities and is delivered by a midwife and dietician.

Tier 4 – Bariatric surgery
This service is commissioned by NHS England area team for the North East for patients with a BMI≥40 or between 35 and 40 and other significant disease (for example, type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure) or to be considered as a first-line option for adults with a BMI≥50.  Bariatric surgery is delivered at James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough, North Tees University Hospital in Stockton-on-Tees and City Hospital Sunderland. During the financial year 2012/13, there were 75 bariatric procedures carried out on adults from Redcar & Cleveland.

In Redcar & Cleveland, a three tiered model has been developed:

  • Tier 1 - universal/prevention services for children and young people with BMI≤91st centile
  • Tier 2 - community weight management services for children and young people with BMI≥91st and up to 98th centile.
  • Tier 3 - specialist intervention for children and young people with BMI ≥ 99.6th centile currently carried out on an individual basis through existing secondary care contracts

Tier 1 – prevention
Listed below are some of the key interventions which contribute to the prevention of overweight and obesity in children and young people. These are discussed in more detail in the Diet and nutrition and Physical inactivity topic sections.

  • Baby friendly initiative – this accredits acute and community settings that have implemented best practice for breastfeeding through implementation of breastfeeding standards. Redcar & Cleveland gained level three accreditation in community settings in 2014 and James Cook University Hospital was reaccredited at stage three in January 2015.
  • Healthy child programme – the early identification and prevention of obesity is a key priority.  All families are given advice about breastfeeding, healthy weaning, healthy eating and active play. For 5-19 year olds, emphasis is on school delivery, via ‘school health teams’ who will offer support to parents and carers.
  • Children’s centres - promotion of healthy eating from birth onwards through programmes such as weaning advice and breastfeeding support, basic cooking skills programmes and community growing schemes.
  • Healthy school meals – School meals in Redcar & Cleveland meet the Food Based and Nutrient Based Standards for school lunches set by the Government. In 2013/14 school meal uptake in Redcar & Cleveland was approximately 58.95% in primary schools (above the national average of 46.3%) and 48.31% in secondary schools (above the national average of 39.8%).
  • Healthy schools – supports schools in achieving the new enhanced Healthy Schools status.
  • School travel plans - All schools in Redcar & Cleveland have a school travel plan in place.

Tier 2 – targeted interventions

  • Community weight management service – A service that provides community, family-based weight management programme for children and young people with a BMI≥91st and up to 98th centile with no significant co-morbidities who are aged 5 to 17 years. The multidisciplinary programme incorporates practical education in nutrition and diet, increasing physical activity, family involvement and behavioural modification. However, there is capacity for only 1% of the overweight and obese child population in Redcar & Cleveland although the provider often struggles to recruit to the programme despite comprehensive efforts to do so.

Tier 3 – specialist intervention
There is currently no weight management service at Tier 3.  Any specialist intervention is currently carried out on an individual basis through existing secondary care contracts.

Services for both adults and children

Tier 1 – prevention

  • Sport and leisure services - provide a wide range of physical activity sessions and opportunities for children, young people and adults in Redcar & Cleveland.
  • Green space – Redcar & Cleveland Borough Council manages a number of parks and open spaces including grass sports pitches and allotments. These offer a mixture of opportunity for formal and informal activity as well as a green and open environment to support positive mental health promotion.
  • Leisure centres – there is a wide range of services and activity sessions (both wet and dry) available at various leisure centres.


Last updated: 10/07/15

6. What is the projected level of need?

Obesity prevalence is forecast to rise for both adults and children.  The trend has been upward for decades and suggests that by 2030, 41-48% of men and 35-43% of women could be obese. However, as discussed above some recent data suggests that the rise in obesity is levelling off.  However, more than one-quarter of adults are already obese and there is a serious and growing burden of obesity-related ill-health.

The Foresight report suggests an increase in the prevalence of obesity among people aged under 20 to around 15% by 2025.  The proportion of boys having a healthy BMI will be 45% while for girls only 30% will be in the healthy weight category (Government Office for Science, 2007).

Percentage of children predicted to be obese by age and sex, England, 2004 and 2025












All under 20










All under 20



Source: Foresight report


For children, there is evidence from the last three to four years of HSE data that the increase in child obesity is slowing. Forecasts to 2020 show encouraging signs that the rising trend may be levelling out, suggesting that there will be considerably lower proportions of overweight and obese children and young people than had previously been estimated. While it is encouraging that the trend in child obesity is levelling off and may reduce in the future, current prevalence of obesity and overweight remains high.

Forecasts for overweight and obesity in children and young people in 2020, England





Foresight forecast

McPherson forecast

Foresight forecast

McPherson forecast
























Social class
There is no evidence that social class differences in the prevalence of obesity in the future will increase beyond those that already exist. However, obesity prevalence among social class I women (aged 20-60) is forecast to be only 15% by 2050, in contrast to 62% forecast for women in social class V.

Health Survey for England samples are relatively small for some ethnic groups and so extrapolations should be treated with particular caution.  The projections suggest only very slight increases in the prevalence of obesity among Indian men and women.  However, obesity trends among black African women and Pakistani men and women are similar to that of the white population, with levels forecast to rise markedly.


Last updated: 10/07/15

7. What needs might be unmet?

There is inadequate capacity building within the workforce to ensure frontline staff are trained to raise the issue of weight and offer appropriate interventions and support.

There is a lack of preventive services particularly focusing on a life course approach.

Targeted weight management service provision is required for those identified at risk in adult and child populations (i.e. BME communities; learning disabilities; maternal obesity; men; under-fives; areas of high deprivation; specialist weight management support and for people with mental health needs).

Connection of weight management pathways and services is required, and stronger links to be made with Map of Medicine and NHS South Tees Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) to ensure a co-ordinated approach.

If current prevalence trends continue, demand for weight management services will outstrip capacity.


Last updated: 10/07/15

8. What evidence is there for effective intervention?

Unhealthy weight gain is a complex issue that likely requires a complex response to prevent or treat. No country, region or locality in the developed world has made a demonstrable and sustained impact on rates of obesity and overweight. The evidence base continues to improve, but there is no intervention or range of interventions currently identified that can be prescribed to effect a population level change.

NICE Guidelines

Obesity: the Prevention, Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults and Children (CG43)

Weight Management Before, During and After Pregnancy (PH27)

Obesity: Working with Local Communities (PH42)

Managing Overweight and Obesity among Children and Young People: Lifestyle Weight Management Services (PH47)

Behaviour Change: Individual Approaches (PH49)

Obesity: Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Children, Young People and Adults (CG189)

Overweight and Obese Adults - Lifestyle Weight Management (PH53)


Department of Health

Strategic High Impact Changes: Childhood Obesity

Healthy Lives, Healthy People: A call to action


Other documents

Arterburn DE and Courcoulas AP (2014). Bariatric surgery for obesity and metabolic conditions in adults.

Bambra CL, Hillier FC, Cairns JM, Kasim A, Moore HJ, Summerbell CD. (2015). How Effective are Interventions at Reducing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Obesity among Children and Adults? Two Systematic Reviews.

Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (2010). Maternal Obesity in the UK: Findings from a National Project.

Dombrowski SU, Knittle K, Avenell A, Araújo-Soares V. and Sniehotta FF (2014). Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials.

Gardner, B., Wardle, J., Poston, L. and Croker, H. (2011). Changing diet and physical activity to reduce gestational weight gain: A meta-analysis.

Government Office for Science (2007) Tackling Obesities: Future Choices.

Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, et al. (2011). Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: lighten Up randomised controlled trial.

National Obesity Observatory – for a wide variety of publications and information related to obesity

Waters E, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Burford BJ, et al. (2011). Interventions for preventing obesity in children.


Last updated: 10/07/15

9. What do people say?

Community weight management services
Satisfaction surveys completed by service users during 2010/11 show that:

  • Tier 2 child weight management: 100% of users rated the service as good or above.
  • Tier 2 adult weight management: 100% of users rated the service as good or above.
  • Tier 3 adult weight management: 94% of users rated the service as excellent with a further 6% rating it as good (64 service users across Middlesbrough, Redcar & Cleveland and Stockton-on-Tees, April 2012–March 2013).

Prior to the development of a service specification for the re-procurement of a Teeswide children and young people’s weight management service, current and potential service users were asked their views on how they thought the service should be delivered in their communities. Although this was a small sample, these views helped shape the service specification including preferred venue options, times of service delivery and service model.  This process will be repeated for future weight management procurements.

Maternal obesity services
The Consultation and Relational Empathy measure (Mercer et al. 2004) has been used to evaluate women’s views of the midwifery care within the healthy lifestyle service; overall  the women identified they had excellent care.

An evaluation by Teesside University of the South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal clinical pathways for obese pregnant women identified that women who have attended the healthy lifestyle clinic have been positive about the increased level of support they received and appreciated the extra time they had with the health care professional to discuss issues when compared with routine appointments. Comments from the focus group held within the maternity service also identified positive experiences when they attended the healthy lifestyle clinic.


Last updated: 10/07/15

10. What additional needs assessment is required?

There is a recognition that more needs to be done to obtain the views of current and potential service users, and the public about obesity services and the obesogenic environment.

Local data and evidence is required on prevalence of obesity for children with a learning disability, and BME populations, and their service needs.

There is a need for a strong partnership with local partners from a variety of organisations to develop an informed and shared vision to prevent and manage obesity in Redcar & Cleveland.

There is a strong evidence base for effective intervention in both adults and children.  Some identified needs are unmet and these should be addressed.


Last updated: 10/07/15

Key Contact

Name: Scott Lloyd

Job Title: Health Improvement Specialist

e-mail: scott.lloyd@redcar-cleveland.gov.uk

phone: 01642 771642



Local strategies and plans

NHS  Tees Integrated Strategic and Operational Plan 2011-2014

NHS Tees Weight Management Services Strategic Review and Development Plan 2010


National strategies and plans

Department of Health (Childhood Obesity National Support Team,  2011). Strategic high impact changes: childhood obesity.

Department of Health (2011).  Healthy Lives, Healthy People: A call to action on obesity in England.

Department of Health, (2008). Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives: A Cross-Government Strategy for England.


Other references

Bhaumik S, Watson JM, Thorp CF. et al. (2008). Body mass index in adults with intellectual disability: distribution, associations and service implications: A population-based prevalence study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52 (4), 287 – 298

Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (2010). Maternal Obesity in the UK: Findings from a National Project. London: Author

Finlayson J, Turner A. & Granat MH. (2011). Measuring the actual levels and patterns of physical activity/inactivity of adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 24 (6), 508 – 517

Government Office for Science (2007) Tackling Obesities: Future Choices. London: Author

Griffiths C, Gately P, Marchant PR. & Cooke CB. (2012). Cross-sectional comparisons of BMI and waist circumference in British children: mixed public health messages. Obesity, 20 (6), 1258 – 60

Harvey SB, Glozier N, Carlton O. et al. (2010). Obesity and sickness absence: Results from the CHAP study. Occupational Medicine, 60 (5), 362 – 368

Health and Social Care Information Centre (2011). National Child Measurement Programme: England, 2010/11 school year. London: Author

Health and Social Care Information Centre (2012). Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, 2012. London: Author

Health and Social Care Information Centre (2014). Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, 2014. London: Author

Heslehurst N, Rankin J, Wilkinson J. & Summerbell CD. (2010). A nationally representative study of maternal obesity in England, UK: trends in incidence and demographic inequalities in 619,323 births, 1989-2007. International Journal of Obesity, 34 (3), 420 – 428 

Lobstein T. (2011). Maternal and child obesity: some policy challenges. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 70, 506 – 513

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