Transport

Transport has an impact on health through transport-related accidents, active travel, public transport, air quality and access to a range of services. 

Transport can affect people by giving access to employment opportunities, education, leisure, healthcare and diverse food supplies. The development of an efficient transport network and vehicles has the potential to benefit health.

Increasing levels of motorised traffic have contributed to air pollution, noise, vibration, danger from vehicles and an increased fear of traffic. These issues particularly affect the most deprived and most vulnerable people in communities.

The rise in personal car use has meant liberation for people who are young and more affluent. More deprived, elderly and disabled people can become trapped in ‘residential islands’ surrounded by dense traffic, or without the means to access more distant facilities and services in out-of-town developments. This also applies to people in rural areas faced with dwindling local facilities and longer travel times.

Road traffic casualties are still one of the main public health challenges in the UK particularly for children and young adults.

The rise in personal car ownership levels has contributed to people being less active. This is a significant contributor to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

This topic has links to the following JSNA topics:

Last updated: 2016-01-27 11:52:07
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1. What are the key issues?

Road Safety

In 2013, there were 368 collisions in Stockton-On-Tees, resulting in 418 casualties. There were 6 fatalities, 44 serious casualties and 368 slight casualties.

In 2013, there were 228 car occupant casualties in Stockton-On-Tees. Of the 228 casualties, 10 were ‘serious’, 2 were ‘fatal’ and 216 were ‘slight’.

The most recent trend analysis shows that there were 59 young car occupant casualties and 18 elderly car occupant casualties. Young drivers represent almost one-quarter of all car occupant casualties.

In 2013, there were 72 pedestrian casualties a significant rise of 25 (53%) on the previous year. The breakdown in severity of pedestrian casualties were 2 (fatal), 13 (serious) and 57 (slight).

In 2013, there were 62 pedal cyclist casualties. The breakdown in severity of pedal cycle collisions were 2 (fatal), 10 (serious) and 50 (slight).

In 2013, there were 29 motorcycle casualties. The breakdown in severity of motorcycle casualties were 9 serious and 20 slight casualties.

Active Travel

The 2011 Census states that only 6.2% of the working population travel actively to work.

In Stockton-On-Tees, an estimated 58.4% of people are active.

In Stockton-On-Tees, an estimated 26.1% of adults are classed as obese.

In Stockton-On-Tees, more than one in five children aged 11 years old are obese.

Last updated: 10/06/15

2. What commissioning priorities are recommended?

2015/01

Facilitate and create increased opportunities for people of all ages to use ‘active travel’ in their daily routine for accessing education, employment or services.

2015/02

Promote greater understanding of the health benefits of active travel and use events and programmes to introduce people to walking and cycling.

2015/03

Increase the capacity of voluntary sector groups to deliver active travel programmes to sustain higher numbers of beneficiaries.

2015/04

Improve detailed understanding of local access issues by improving the walking and cycling network information.

2015/05

Consider health impact assessments for transport projects which have the potential to influence physical activity or such things as air quality and accessibility.

2015/06

Commission programmes of education, training and publicity targeted towards reductions in road traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users.

Last updated: 16/06/15

3. Who is at risk and why?

Various factors influence the demand for transport as shown below.

Factors that affect transport demand (Litman, 2012):

Age

Older (over 65-year-olds) and younger (18 to 20-year-olds) drivers are at particular risk of serious and fatal injuries on the roads.

Children are becoming less physically fit as they age. 

Gender

A higher percentage of boys than girls (aged 2-15 years) meet the Government’s recommendations for physical activity.

There is no current evidence suggesting gender plays a significant role in determining the prevalence of obesity in adults.  However, the NCMP shows that boys are significantly more likely to be obese than girls.

Socioeconomic status

Children in the 10% most deprived wards in England are more than three times as likely to be pedestrian casualties as those in the 10% most affluent wards.

Although the most deprived areas produce the lowest levels of pollution, they are actually exposed to the highest levels of air pollution.

More people are active in households with higher income. 

The distribution of overweight and obesity has a significant social gradient, with prevalence among people who are socially and economically deprived.

Disability

Disabled people are most likely to suffer an injury due to a trip or fall and therefore, will require longer periods of medical care than other groups. 

Children and young people with a disability take part in physical activity and sport less frequently and their experiences are less positive than their non-disabled peers (Sport Scotland, 2006).

Ethnicity

Injury rates are higher in black children when compared to their white and Asian peers.

People from minority ethnic groups tend to be less active compared to their white peers (The Information Centre, 2006).

Environment

People living within close proximity of motorised traffic can be affected as traffic vibration and noise cause stress, while congestion, traffic speeds and inconsiderate driving are a source of annoyance and fear for many.

Nationally in 2011, the majority (61%) of road collision related fatalities occurred on rural roads (40% on rural A roads and 21% on other rural roads).

While the evidence is varied, studies tend to show that cyclists and pedestrians are exposed to lower fine particulate matter and carbon dioxide concentrations when compared to those inside vehicles. The proximity to the pollution source(s) has a significant impact on the level of exposure levels experienced.

Time

Nationally, whilst deaths peaked during the evening rush hour (and potentially dark nights), with a peak of 173 between 18:00 and 19:00 there were fatalities throughout the whole day.

Friday, Saturday and Sunday accounts for 50% of all deaths. Saturday and Sunday show evening peaks related to the periods following likely pub drinking and parties. On Sunday there are peaks following likely lunchtime drinking.

Last updated: 10/06/15

4. What is the level of need in the population?

The Tees Valley Transport Monitoring Report (http://www.teesvalleyunlimited.gov.uk/media/39881/tees_valley_monitoring_report.pdf) provides a wealth of statistical data for all modes of transport and monitors trends and changes over recent years. Several examples of tables within this document are shown below:

Traffic-related casualties

Tees Valley casualties by severity

Tees Valley casualties by age

Average vehicle speed

Tees Valley bus patronage

 

Last updated: 10/06/15

5. What services are currently provided?

Interventions to improve safety are developed using detailed casualty data, plus national and local studies. Current programmes include: 

Current Schemes Delivered

Links to other JSNA Topics/Themes

Pressures for future delivery

Implementation of local highway safety and maintenance schemes.

Provided by Local Authority

Topic - Safe and sustainable communities.

Theme – People, vulnerable groups

Reducing budgets and resources. Insufficient capital budgets to repair highways in states of disrepair and implement local safety schemes.

Identification of casualty reduction schemes through road accident data, traffic volume information and community concerns.

Provided by Local Authority.

Topic – Ensure a healthy standard of living. Develop healthy and sustainable communities.

Themes – People, vulnerable groups, behaviour/lifestyle.

Reduced budgets available to treat small scale schemes and not implement neighbourhood wide initiatives.

Delivery of road safety education, training and publicity initiatives to schools, businesses and residents.

Provided by LA, Police and Fire and Rescue.

Topic – Ensure a healthy standard of living. Develop healthy and sustainable communities.

Themes – People, vulnerable groups, behaviour/lifestyle. Environmental impacts.

Reducing budgets and competing with other agencies for training time, in particular schools.

Coordination of activities with Tees Childhood Injury Prevention Working Group.

 

Provided by Housing, Health, Police, Fire and LA’s.

Topic – Ensure a healthy standard of living. Develop healthy and sustainable communities.

Themes – People, vulnerable groups, behaviour/lifestyle.

Ensuring partners are tasked with working collaboratively to demonstrate value for money and sharing successes. Ensure integration across road, home, fire and personal safety. Engagement with hard to reach families.

 

Driver/Offender Retraining Services.

Provided by Police and LA.

Topic – Ensure a healthy standard of living. Develop healthy and sustainable communities.

Themes – People, vulnerable groups, behaviour/lifestyle. Environmental impacts.

Economic climate pressures and offenders chose to take penalty points as opposed to attending retraining courses.

Cycle Training and  Promotion – Bikeability National Standard Course.

Provided by LA.

 

Topic - Improved safety, developing healthy and sustainable communities, ill health prevention.

 

Department for Transport Funding guaranteed for a further year only.

School Crossing Patrol Service

Provided by LA.

Topic - Safe and sustainable communities.

Theme – People, vulnerable groups

Local Authority budgetary pressures to reduce service further.

Speed management – enforcement and engineering including 20 mph zones and limits.

Provided by Police, LA and Neighbourhoods.

Topic - Develop healthier and sustainable communities

Theme – People, vulnerable groups, behavioural/lifestyle

Increased number of vehicles using the public highway equates to greater exposure to risk. Possible resource issues with Cleveland Police.

Sustainable Travel Promotion in communities and businesses

Provided by Sustrans in partnership with LA

Topic - Safe and sustainable communities, strengthen the role and impact of ill health prevention, create a healthy standard of living.

Theme – People, vulnerable groups, behavioural/lifestyle

Budget pressures.

Promotion and marketing of safer road user behaviour and sustainable travel.

Provided by LA, Police, Fire, Charitable organisations.

Topic - Safe and sustainable communities.

Theme – People, vulnerable groups, behavioural/lifestyle

 

 

Local Authority budgetary pressures to reduce service further.

Travel planning including the installation of cycle parking.

Provided by LA.

 

Topic - Safe and sustainable communities, strengthen the role and impact of ill health prevention, create a healthy standard of living.

Theme – People, vulnerable groups, behavioural/lifestyle

Unattractive cycling infrastructure, lack of adult cycle training and over reliance on the private motor car.

Schools Transport Provision.

Provided by LA, private sector.

Topic - Safe and sustainable communities

Theme - People, vulnerable groups, behavioural/lifestyle

Budget pressures.

Evidence of progress for these interventions is published in Stockton’s annual Road Casualty Review.

Last updated: 10/06/15

6. What is the projected level of need?

Increasing car ownership in the North East will lead to increased levels of traffic and therefore a likelihood of increased risk.

An aging population will increase the level of risk in drivers who are over 65 years old.

Sedentary lifestyles brought about by increasing car ownership and decreasing amounts of daily activity may lead to increases in clinical obesity levels.

Last updated: 10/06/15

7. What needs might be unmet?

Casualty reduction

The current economic climate has placed severe pressures upon levels of investment in transport infrastructure. Traditional traffic engineering interventions on the road network are capital intensive and becoming increasingly difficult to fund, particularly as all of the ‘easy wins’ have already been made. There are thus fewer higher-return sites available in an already highly engineered environment, and those that remain are costly, and with poorer returns. Major reductions in the capital budget therefore mean that far fewer schemes can be delivered.

Softer measures in education, training and publicity will have a crucial role to play in making roads safer. However, public sector revenue budget cuts and the removal of specific funding streams such as the road safety grant have placed pressure on this area too. Beyond the current programmes of delivery to vulnerable road users, there is a particular requirement to support the needs of young drivers and the needs of an aging population with more older people driving.

Active travel/casualty reduction

There are missing links in the Stockton-On-Tees cycle route infrastructure. There also remain some significant barriers which separate communities and restrict active travel.

Cyclist training for year 5 and year 6 is covered by the Council’s training provision, and funded by the Department for Transport’s allocation for Bikeability levels 1 & 2. Turning young, basic-level cyclists into capable and regular commuters does however require further investment and there is currently a shortfall in provision for on-road training at Y7-11 (ages 11-16) for Bikeability Level 3. DfT funding for this is now becoming available but it requires local match funding to gain access to a DfT Bikeability grant.

Results from the Big Lottery-funded Active Travel project (based at The Hub) have shown that there is latent demand for higher levels of cycling and walking amongst adults, for both workplace commuting and also leisure and everyday transport. Pilot schemes for older cyclists (’Silver Cyclists’) have proven both popular and effective (Active Travel Monitoring Report, Sustrans 2011). Pilot funding has come to an end, and alternative funding will be required going forward.

The Government’s local transport white Paper, Cutting Carbon, Creating Growth: Making Sustainable Local Transport Happen DfT 2011 sets out the Government’s vision for a sustainable local transport system that supports the economy and reduces carbon emissions. The principal focus for action will be at local level. The key points in the paper are reducing the number of grant-making schemes and decentralising decision-making powers to local authorities, local economic partnerships (LEPs) and voluntary community and social enterprises (VCSEs). The Tees Valley has been successful in securing Local Sustainable Transport Funding in 2015/16 from the DfT for a range of measures to promote sustainable transport and increase residents levels of activity and access to services and employment.

Last updated: 10/06/15

8. What evidence is there for effective intervention?

Cairns J, Warren J, Garthwaite K, Greig G, Bambra C; Go slow: an umbrella review of the effects of 20 mph zones and limits on health and health inequalitie: Journal of Public Health, 2014.

NICE. Preventing unintentional road injuries among under-15s. NICE Public Health Guidance 31, 2010. guidance.nice.org.uk/ph31. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph31/resources/guidance-preventingunintentional-road-injuries-among-under15s-pdf.

Pucher J, Buehler R. Making cycling irresistible: lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark & Germany. Transport Rev 2008;28(4):495–528.

Last updated: 10/06/15

9. What do people say?

Consultation is a key aspect of transport-related activity. In the preparation of the Council’s LTP3 document, the consultation process sought opinions by a number of means during 2010:

  • Web-based, via Stockton Council’s website;
  • Viewpoint survey;
  • Youth Viewpoint survey;
  • A consultation event;
  • Area Transport Strategy boards; and
  • Key stakeholder organisations.

Details of the consultations are at http://www.stockton.gov.uk/resources/transportstreets/ltp3/2277550.pdf. Headline findings are as follows: 

Council website consultation

  • Improvements required in the walking and cycling network;
  • Improvements required in public transport;
  • Improving the quality of life;
  • Measures to reduce accidents; and
  • Maintenance of roads. 

Youth viewpoint survey

  • Access to key services;
  • Improving cycling and walking links;
  • Improving links to neighbouring areas;
  • Improvements required to bus and rail facilities and services;
  • Road safety education; and
  • Maintenance of roads and footpaths. 

Viewpoint survey & consultation event

  • Need for an integrated transport system;
  • Need for a bus station at Stockton;
  • Promoting public transport usage;
  • Road safety issues, particularly for the needs of pedestrians and cyclists; and
  • School time traffic congestion. 

Area transport strategies

The area transport strategies (ATS) are based on the four area boards of Stockton

Renaissance, the local strategic partnership, were consulted in the development of LTP3. Their principal objectives for their communities are:

Central area objectives

  • Improvements to public transport provision;
  • Tackling inconsiderate parking;
  • Improvements to road safety including provision of adequate street lighting and tackling excessive speeds;
  • Tackling congestion associated with the ‘schoolrun’; and
  • Improvements to the walking and cycling network.

Eastern area objectives

  • Improvements to public transport provision;
  • Tackling inconsiderate parking;
  • Support the actions associated with school travel plans by providing new/improved infrastructure where appropriate;
  • Addressing the issue of existing and future levels of congestion in Ingleby Barwick; and
  • Improvements to the walking and cycling network.

Northern area objectives 

  • Improve public transport provision;
  • Tackling excessive speeds on local roads;
  • Addressing issues about the volume of heavy goods vehicles passing through the area;
  • Improvements to the walking and cycling network in the area; and
  • Improvements to Billingham rail station.

 Western area objectives:

  • Improvements to public transport provision;
  • Tackling excessive speeds on local roads;
  • Addressing the issues about parking and congestion in Yarm;
  • Improvements to the walking and cycling network in the area; and
  • Addressing the issue of the volume of heavy goods vehicles passing through the area.
Last updated: 10/06/15

10. What additional needs assessment is required?

A better understanding is needed of the links (and barriers) between leisure and commuter cycling, i.e. how to turn more weekend cyclists into people who cycle to work, school and on similar short-range journeys.

Last updated: 10/06/15

Key Contact

Topic lead

Name: Richard McGuckin

Job title:

e-mail: richard.mcguckin@stockton.gov.uk

phone:

Topic author

Name: Jonathan Kibble

Job Title: Principal Transport Officer

e-mail: Jonathan.Kibble@stockton.gov.uk

phone: 01642 526735

 

References

Local strategies and plans

 

 

 

 

National strategies and plans

 

 

Other references